I’ve been doing my best to stay away from the current ruckus over the Hugo Awards, but itâ€™s now spread widely enough that itâ€™s spilled onto my Facebook page, and itâ€™s bound to splatter on me elsewhere as well. Itâ€™s also been brought to my attention that Breitbartâ€™s very well-trafficked web siteâ€”never famous for the accuracy of its so-called â€œreportingâ€â€”has me listed as one of the supposedly downtrodden conservative and/or libertarian authors oppressed by the SF establishment. Given my lifelong advocacy of socialismâ€”and I was no armchair Marxist either, but committed twenty-five years of my life to being an activist in the industrial trade unionsâ€”I find that quite amusing.
So I decided it was time to toss in my two cents worth. Wellâ€¦ if we calculate words as being worth eight cents apiece, my five hundred and eighty dollars worth. (Not quite, but Iâ€™m an author so Iâ€™m rounding the word count up. To do otherwise would get me drummed out of the Scribbler Corps.)
So, here goes.
First, on the Hugo and Nebula (and all other) awards given out in science fiction. Do they have problems? Yes, they all do. For a variety of reasons, the awards no longer have much connection to the Big Wide World of science fiction and fantasy readers. Thirty and forty years ago, they did. Today, they donâ€™t.
Is this because of political bias, as charged by at least some of the people associated with the Sad Puppies slate? No, it isnâ€™tâ€”or at least not in the way the charge is being leveled. I will discuss this issue later, but for the moment let me address some more general questions.
What Iâ€™m going to be dealing with in this essay is a reality that is now at least tacitly recognized by most professional authorsâ€”and stated bluntly on occasion by editors and publishers. Thatâ€™s the growing divergence between the publicâ€™s perception of fantasy and science fiction and the perception of the much smaller group of people who vote for literary awards and write literary reviews for the major F&SF magazines. There was a time in fantasy and science fiction when the publicâ€™s assessment of the fieldâ€™s various authors and the assessment of its â€œinner circlesâ€ was, if not identical, very closely related. But that time is far behind us.
There was never an exact correlation, of course. There have always been, in our field as in any field of literary or artistic endeavor, a certain number of authors who, while very popular, never got much in the way of recognition in terms of awards.
Two examples are Murray Leinster and Andre Norton. Both Leinster and Norton had immensely successful literary careers that spanned over half a century. Leinster was once dubbed by Time magazine â€œthe dean of science fictionâ€â€”he had the title before Heinlein more or less took it overâ€”and itâ€™s almost impossible to overstate Nortonâ€™s central position in the field for decades.
Nonetheless, in his entire career in science fiction, Murray Leinster got almost no recognition when it came to the fieldâ€™s major awards. Before I go any further, I should specify that by â€œmajor awardsâ€ I am referring to the Hugo and Nebula; and, in the case of fantasy, the World Fantasy Award. Of these, the Hugo is generally considered to be the pre-eminent award in our field.
The Nebula award ignored Leinster completely. The World Fantasy Award also ignored him, but that award wasnâ€™t established until 1975. Leinster died that year, and his active writing career had ended several years earlier. He probably wouldnâ€™t have ever gotten nominated for the award, anyway, since Leinster was almost exclusively a science fiction author.
He did receive two nominations for the Hugo and won one of themâ€”that was for his novelette â€œExploration Team,â€ in 1956. Still, thatâ€™s awfully skimpy recognition, given his overall career.
The situation was, if anything, even more extreme with Andre Norton. She was also nominated twice for the Hugoâ€”for best novel (Witch World) in 1964, and for best novelette (â€œWizardâ€™s Worldâ€) a few years later, in 1968â€”but she didnâ€™t win either time. Another way of looking at this is that, for almost the last forty years of her career (she didnâ€™t die until 2005 and was writing actively until the very end), she received no recognition of any kind from the fieldâ€™s premier award.
And, just as was true of Leinster, she was completely ignored by the Nebula.
She never won a World Fantasy Award for any specific work of hers, either. No best novel, no best novella, no best short fiction. (The WFC doesnâ€™t make the distinction the Hugo and Nebula awards do between short stories and novelettes.)
She did, very late in her career, receive belated recognition from the World Fantasy Award. The third time she was nominated for a life achievement award, she won it.
But that wasnâ€™t until 1998. To put this in perspective, that was:
- 46 years after the publication of Star Manâ€™s Son (aka Daybreak, 2250 A.D.) the first novel in our field that sold over a million copies;
- 45 years after the publication of Star Rangers and 43 years after the publication of Star Guard;
- 35 years after the publication of Witch World, the first volume in what became one of the most successful and long running series in fantasy.
Belated recognition, indeed.
As the example of Andre Norton demonstrates, even at their best, literary awards are a very imperfect reflection of actual achievement. Nor is that peculiar to our field. Just to give one example, James Joyce never got the Nobel Prize for Literature. Neither did Henry James, Marcel Proust, Franz Kafka, Virginia Woolf, Robert Frost or Jorge Luis Borges.
On the flip side, it was always trueâ€”and properly soâ€”that the major awards were given out many times for authors who, other than one or two specific works, never had much overall impact on the field. Perhaps the most obvious example is Daniel Keyes. From the moment his short story â€œFlowers For Algernonâ€ appeared in the April 1959 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, it has been universally recognized as one of the great stories of our genre.
Of fiction in general, actually, genre distinctions be damned. I first ran across â€œFlowers For Algernonâ€ a few years later, as one of the assigned readings in an American literature course I took as a junior in high school.
Yet, except for that one brilliant story, Keyes had an otherwise undistinguished career. A total of three novelsâ€”one of them a novelization of â€œFlowers For Algernonâ€ which won the Nebula in 1966â€”and perhaps a dozen short stories, none of which are considered by most people to be particularly exceptional.
Still, although there was never an identity between the field of fantasy and science fiction as perceived by the mass audience, and that perceived by what for lack of a better term I will call the in-crowds, there was a tremendous overlap. Both fields inhabited the same planet, certainly.
When I was growing up and even as a young man, through the decade of the 1960s and well into the 1970s, the authors I would run across regularly on the shelves of any science fiction section in any bookstoreâ€”or on the revolving wire racks in drugstoresâ€”were by and large the very same authors who were regularly nominated for major awards and won them at least on occasion.
There were some exceptions like Andre Norton and Murray Leinster, true enough. But, by and large, that was overshadowed by the overlap. To name some specific top-selling authors of the time:
Robert Heinlein: Twelve Hugo nominations and four wins; four Nebula nominations, although he never won the award.
Arthur Clarke: Seven Hugo nominations and three wins; three Nebula nominations and three wins.
Poul Anderson: Fifteen Hugo nominations and seven wins; twelve Nebula nominations and three wins.
Anne McCaffrey: Seven Hugo nominations and one win; three Nebula nominations and one win.
Fritz Leiber: Thirteen Hugo nominations and six wins; eleven Nebula nominations and three wins.
Ursula LeGuin: Twenty-two Hugo nominations and five wins; seventeen Nebula nominations and five wins.
Roger Zelazny: Fourteen Hugo nominations and six wins; fourteen Nebula nominations and three wins
Clifford Simak: Ten Hugo nominations and three wins; four Nebula nominations and one win.
Gordon Dickson: Seven Hugo nominations and three wins; three Nebula nominations and one win.
Iâ€™m not including the World Fantasy Award, because it didnâ€™t exist in this time period. And while I could go on, I think the point is obvious.
What has become equally obvious, to anyone willing to look at the situation objectively, is that a third of a century later the situation has become transformed. Today, there are is only one author left who can regularly maintain the bridge between popular appeal and critical acclaim. That author is Neil Gaiman. And there are no more than a handful of others who can manage it on occasion. Perhaps the most prominent in that small group are Lois McMaster Bujold, Ursula LeGuin and George R.R. Martin.
Once you get beyond that very small number of authors, the field diverges rapidly. That handful aside, there is no longer any great overlap between those fantasy and science fiction authors whom the mass audience considers the fieldâ€™s most important writersâ€”judging by sales, at any rateâ€”and those who are acclaimed by the small groups of people who hand out awards.
And they are very small groups. Not more than a few hundred people in the case of the Hugos and Nebulas, and a panel of judges in the case of the WFC.
So whatâ€™s going on? Why has a situation developed where for an author to become too popular seems to be effectively the kiss of death as far as awards are concerned? (Again, with a few exceptions like Neil Gaiman.)
Well, letâ€™s see if we can answer the question. And letâ€™s begin by taking up the most obvious solution: The mass audience for F&SF is just plain dumber than it was thirty or forty years ago, thatâ€™s all. The reason these authors are popular is because theyâ€™re pandering to what is now a very lowbrow and unsophisticated readership.
That explanation is notâ€”quiteâ€”as preposterous as it sounds. We do, after all, have the sobering example of the movie industry to consider. There is not much question that, for all the tremendous improvement in technical effects and technical skills, the average popular movie today is just plain a lot dumber than they were a quarter of a century ago.
True enoughâ€”but thereâ€™s no mystery about the demographics involved, either. For various reasons, the movie-going audience over the past two decades has become dominated by teenagers, mostly male, and the movie industry has adapted its output accordingly. What youâ€™re seeing isnâ€™t so much â€œdumbâ€ movies for a â€œdumbâ€ audienceâ€”plenty of those teenagers are very brightâ€”as it is movies shaped for a teenage audience. But is there any similar dynamic happening in literary F&SF?
Well, no. In fact, the standard complaint is exactly the oppositeâ€”that the field is â€œgrayingâ€ because weâ€™re not acquiring enough in the way of new youngsters. There is absolutely no reason to believe that the F&SF mass audience todayâ€”speaking of readers, at leastâ€”is any less sophisticated than it ever was.
In fact, there is plenty of evidence that the opposite is true. In addition to being an author, I also do a lot of editing of old science fiction stories. Iâ€™ve produced by now something like three dozen anthologies of stories written mostly in the fifties, sixties and early seventies. And I can state flatly that the average level of fiction written in our field today is far higher than it was half a century ago. As fond as I am of the fiction I grew up on, the simple fact is that most of those authors couldnâ€™t get published today.
Itâ€™s not just a matter of prose, either. Just about everything in those days was crude, compared to the situation today.
The science in â€œscience fictionâ€ was often abysmal, especially the biology. Edgar Rice Burroughs was by no means the only author who told stories in which humans mate with aliens and produce offspring. Thereby demonstrating a grasp of biology stuck somewhere in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries.
The settings were typically crude, too, compared to the settings of most stories today. So were the plots. There were exceptions, to be sureâ€”and, not surprisingly, those tended to be the most popular authors.
My point is simply that there is no rational basis for thinking that the literary sophistication of the mass audience for F&SF today is any worse than it was some decades ago, and plenty of reason to think that itâ€™s actually superior.
Scratch that theory, then.
Then, thereâ€™s the argument advanced recently by the people around Sad Puppies is that the Hugos (and presumably the other awards) have been warped by politics. Specifically, by a bias against conservative authors like Larry Correia and John Ringo.
My response to this can be either short or very longâ€”very, very, very longâ€”and Iâ€™m opting for short. In a nutshell:
Any authorâ€”or publisher, or editorâ€”who gets widely associated with a political viewpoint that generates a lot of passion will inevitably suffer a loss of attractiveness when it comes to getting nominated for awardsâ€”or just reader reviews. Somebody is bound to get angry at you and denigrate your work, and often enough urge others to do the same.
Does it happen to people who are strongly associated with the right? Yes, it does. But it also happens to people who are strongly associated in the public mind with the left. If you donâ€™t believe me, all you have to do is read through Amazon reader reviews of my work and see how many â€œreviewsâ€ are obviously triggered off by someoneâ€™s outrage/indignation/umbrage at what they perceive as my political viewpoint and have little if anything to do with the book which is theoretically being â€œreviewed.â€
Nor does it matter very much whether the assessment people have is accurate or not. To give an example which is germane to this issue, there is a wide perception among many people in fandomâ€”the average reader-on-the-street could care lessâ€”that Baen Books is a slavering rightwing publisher. And never mind the inconvenient fact that the author who has had more books published through Baen Books than any other over the past twenty years isâ€¦
(roll of drums)
Who is today and has been throughout his adult life an avowed socialist (as well as an atheist), and hasnâ€™t changed his basic opinions one whit. A fact which is well-known to Baen Books and has been well-known ever since my first conversation with Jim Baen almost twenty years ago, which was a two-hour discussion of politics. (The next day we talked about my novel which he was considering buyingâ€”and did buy, saying: â€œWell, I guess if John Campbell could get along with Mack Reynolds, I can get along with you.â€)
So why does Baen keep publishing me? For the same reason any sensible commercial publisher keeps publishing a given author. I sell well.
This whole argument is just silly, and reflects the habit too many people have of seeing nefarious conspiracies everywhere they look, all of them aimed against them.
Yes, itâ€™s true that Larry Correia and John Ringo are pretty far to the right on the political spectrum and they donâ€™t get nominated for major awards despite being very popular.
You know what else is true?
Iâ€™m very popular and further to the left on the political spectrum than they are to the rightâ€”and I never get nominated either. Mercedes Lackey isnâ€™t as far left as I am, but sheâ€™s pretty damn far to the left and even more popular than I amâ€”or Larry Correia, or John Ringoâ€”and she doesnâ€™t get nominated either.
The popular fantasy author Steven Brust, like me, is what most people call a â€œTrotskyist.â€ In a career that has now lasted thirty years, heâ€™s picked up one Nebula nomination. On the other hand, China MiÃ©villeâ€”another so-called Trotskyistâ€”has gotten around a dozen nominations and won both a Hugo and a World Fantasy Award.
On the other side of the political spectrum, Mike Resnick has gotten more Hugo nominations than just about any author in the history of science fictionâ€”heâ€™s won five times, tooâ€”and heâ€™s a Republican. A sometimes loud and vociferous Republican, as I can attest because heâ€™s a friend of mine and weâ€™ve been known to argue about politics. Loudly and vociferously.
The fact is, there is no correlation I can see between an authorâ€™s political views and the frequency (or complete lack thereof) with which he or she gets nominated for SF literary awards. The claim of the Sad Puppies faction that so-called â€œsocial justice warriorsâ€ are systematically discriminating against them is specious. It can only be advanced by cherry-picking examples and studiously ignoring all the ones that contradict the thesis, of which there are a multitude.
All right. Now that I haveâ€”to my satisfaction, anywayâ€”disposed of the most common reasons advanced to explain the situation, let me present my own analysis.
I believe there are three major factors involved that account for the ever-widening gap between the judgment of the mass audience and that of the (comparatively tiny) inner circles of SFdom who hand out awards. Of the three, two of them are objective in nature, which is what makes the problem so intractable. And all three of them tend to constantly reinforce each other.
The first objective factor is about as simple as gets. The field is simply too damn BIG, nowadays. For all the constant whining you hear from lots of authors about how tough things are today for working writersâ€”which is true enough, in and of itselfâ€”the fact is that the situation is a lot better than it used to be. Half a century ago, I doubt if there were more than a dozen F&SF writers able to make a full-time living at it, and most of them were not making a very good living. Today, with a North American population no more than twice the size it was then, I figure there are somewhere around a hundred F&SF authors able to work at it full time, and at least a third of them are earning more than the median annual income. Even in per capita terms, that’s a big improvement.
I can remember the days, as a teenager and a young man, when the science fiction section of any bookstore amounted to maybe, at most, one bookcase’s worth of titles. Usually it was only a shelf or twoâ€”or, more often than not, just a handful of titles on a revolving wire rack in a drugstore. Today, in any major bookstore in the country, the F&SF section is huge in comparison.
Forty or fifty years agoâ€”even thirty years ago, to a degreeâ€”it was quite possible for any single reader to keep on top of the entire field. You wouldn’t read every F&SF story, of course. But you could maintain a good general knowledge of the field as a whole and be at least familiar with every significant author.
Today, that’s simply impossible. Leaving aside short fiction, of which there’s still a fair amount being produced, you’d have to be able to read at least two novels a day to keep up with what’s being publishedâ€”and that’s just in the United States. In reality, nobody can do it, so what happens is that over the past few decades the field has essentially splintered, from a critical standpoint.
Both of the major awards, the Hugo and the Nebula, are simple popularity contests with absolutely no requirementâ€”or even expectation, any longerâ€”that the voters will have read all or even most of the nominees. In the old days, that wasn’t much of a problem because you could expect that most voters were at least reasonably familiar with the authors and works under consideration. But today that’s not true at all. People routinely vote for “best novel” or “best short story” when all they’ve read is one or two of the nominees, and in many cases, have never read anything by many of the other authors nominatedâ€”not to mention being completely ignorant of other authors who never got nominated in the first place.
What happens in a situation like this is inevitable. Itâ€™s the same thing that happens in the face of any kind of sensory overload. To use a completely mundane example, the same thing that happens when someoneâ€”under instructions from a spouse to â€œbuy some cerealâ€â€”turns their shopping cart into the aisle where cereals are sold…
And discovers that, today, there are a dozen different brands of muesli.
Whatever the hell muesli is.
Nine times out of ten, the shopperâ€”out of self-defenseâ€”will narrow his or her focus and look for the old standby reliables. You can always count on Cheerios and corn flakes.
The same thing happens with the awards. Willy-nilly, the award-voters look for the standby reliables.
You get a de facto division of authors into “award worthy” and “not award worthy,” and the division is often based on completely accidental factors.
The problem isnâ€™t who gets the awards. The problem is the large number of possible nominees and winners who simply get ignored year after year after yearâ€”especially when you realize that they include the big majority of the fieldâ€™s most popular authors.
As time goes by, the Hugo and Nebula contests have become increasingly incestuous. Every year it’s basically the same thing: “round up the usual suspects.” This incestuous situation reached perhaps the height of absurdity with the Hugo award for best artist. For nine years in a row, between 1996 and 2004, that award went to two artistsâ€”Bob Eggleton or Mike Whelan. Bob or Mike, Bob or Mike, Bob or Mike, Bob or Mike, year after year after year. Finallyâ€”glory beâ€”Jim Burns and Donato Giancola were able to break through. But many other excellent artists are still continually ignored.
To make sure there are no misunderstandings, I have no problem with either Eggleton or Whelan winning the Hugo award for best artist. They are in fact excellent artists, both of themâ€”and Bobâ€™s done a number of the covers for my own novels, including one of my personal favorites. (The cover for Rats, Bats & Vats.) The point is simply that itâ€™s absurd to narrow the field of award-winners down to two artists, year after year after year, when there are so many excellent artists in the field.
By the wayâ€”credit where credit is dueâ€”Bob himself eventually found the situation so preposterous that he launched a campaign to get someone else the award. Specifically, Darryl Sweet.
He failed. Once again, he won it. (Or Mike Whelan did, I canâ€™t remember.)
What makes this problem still worse is the very unfortunate linking of the major awards to an annual cycle. That annual cycle for handing out literary or artistic awards was always a bad idea. It automatically injected a completely arbitrary element into the awards, since the annual cycle has no intrinsic relationship whatsoever to literary or artistic merit. It was perfectly possible to have some years with a relatively mediocre output of work mixed in with years where there was a super-abundance. But it didn’t matter. The rigid annual structure meant that an awardâ€”one and only one, for “best” this or thatâ€”had to be given each year.
Still, the fact that most readers were able to stay on top of the field as a whole tended to mitigate that problem. Today, they canâ€™t. Not only do you have a few hundred people each year voting for the “best” whatevers for the Hugo and Nebulasâ€”out of the millions ofÂ people in the United States who regularly buy and read science fiction and fantasyâ€”but those few hundred people have to make their decisions under the gun. They not only can’t stay on top of the field, but they are further constrained by the fact that they have to decide within a year which works that came out were the best. This, despite the fact that almost none of them have the time to even read all of the nominated works.
The second objective problem is that due to massive changes in the market for F&SFâ€”changes so massive that they amount to a complete transformation of the field over the past several decadesâ€”the structure of the major awards no longer bears any relationship to the real world in which professional authors live and work. Thatâ€™s especially true for those authors who are able to work on a full-time basis and who depend on their writing income for a living. Award-voters and reviewers and critics can afford to blithely ignore the realities of the market, but they canâ€™t.
Both the Hugo and the Nebula give out four literary awards. (I’m not including here the more recent dramatic awards, just the purely literary categories.) Those awards are given for best short story, best novelette, best novella, and best novel. In other words, three out of four awardsâ€”75% of the totalâ€”are given for short fiction.
Forty or fifty years ago, that made perfect sense. It was an accurate reflection of the reality of the field for working authors. F&SF in those days was primarily a short form genre, whether you measured that in terms of income generated or number of readers.
But that is no longer true. Today, F&SF is overwhelmingly a novel market. Short fiction doesn’t generate more than 1% or 2% of all income for writers. And even measured in terms of readership, short fiction doesn’t account for more than 5% of the market.
Donâ€™t believe me? Then consider this: I have published at least half a dozen novels each of which has sold more copies than the combined circulation of all science fiction and fantasy magazines in the United Statesâ€”and I am by no means the most popular author in our field.
To make the situation still worse, the official rules for both the Hugo and Nebula define a “novel” as any story more than 40,000 words long.
Half a century ago, that was reasonable. The average length of an SF novel was between 40,000 and 60,000 words. But today that definition is simply laughable. Every professional author and editor in our field knows perfectly well that no major publisher, outside of the YA market, will accept a “novel” manuscript that’s less than 80,000 words longâ€”and they usually want between 90-120,000 words.
So, because of the rigidity of the award structure and its inability to adapt to changes in the market, an entire category of fiction has literally disappeared from the purview of the awardsâ€”despite the fact that this category (stories between 40K and 80K words long) is the type of fiction that routinely won the best novel award, year after year after year, when the awards were first set up.
By the way, fiction of this lengthâ€”I think of them as “short novels”â€”does still get written. I’ve written half a dozen myself. But about the only viable market nowadays for these kinds of short novels is in shared universe anthologiesâ€”and no story published in such an anthology will ever get considered for a best novel award. (Nor can they be considered for best novella, because they’re too long.)
Still, every year, the award-voters keep pretending that anything more than forty thousand words is a â€œnovel.â€
Then, it gets worse. Because the market today isn’t simply a novel market. It’s become predominantly a market that wants long series, not stand-alone novels. And the existing award structure is very poorly designed to handle long series. About the only way it can do it is byâ€”quite artificially, in most casesâ€”cutting one book out of a series and pretending for the moment that it’s a “this year only” quasi-stand alone story.
That can be done with some series, which are designed by their authors to consist of stories that are only somewhat loosely connected. But other series are quite different. To name just one example, the current situation with David Weber’s long-running Honor Harrington series is that no fewer than three novels are running more or less simultaneously with each other, with the action of the various characters penetrating from one story to the otherâ€”and, just to put the icing on the cake, a number of the major characters were first developed in short fiction published in one or another of the anthologies that are part of the series, and some of them by authors other than Weber himself. Trying to separate any of these out as “best this or that of Year X” would be an exercise in futility.
And never mind that Weber is doing something well enough that the Honor Harrington series is one of the very few purely SF series that regularly makes the New York Times bestseller list. His narrative structure doesnâ€™t match what the awards are comfortable with, so to hell with him. And to hell with what the mass audience thinks.
What it all comes down to, being objective about it, is that every year a few hundred peopleâ€”Worldcon attendees, in the case of the Hugo; SFWA members in the case of the Nebulaâ€”hand out awards not for what authors are actually doing but for what those few hundred people think authors ought to be doing.
“Well, dammit, you OUGHTA still be writing lots of short storiesâ€”sure, sure, you’d starve but that’s your problemâ€”instead of these godawful endless multi-volume series just because that’s what the mass audience wants to read and it pays your mortgage and medical bills.”
Put these two objective factors together, and the end result is the ever-growing division you see today between those authors whom the mass audience perceives as the major authors in F&SF and those authors whom the comparatively tiny but socially prestigious award-voting and critical in-crowds consider major authors. It’s a division which is getting worse, not better, as time goes on.
Naturally, objective reality tends to produce subjective reactions that match it. Soâ€”this is the one major subjective factor involvedâ€”you also get an ever-growing division in peoples’ attitudes about what constitutes “good writing” and what doesn’t.
Whatâ€™s involved here is essentially a literary analog to genetic drift. Biologists have long known that the role played by pure chance in evolution is greater in a small population than a larger one. The same thing happens in the arts, especially those arts which have a huge mass audience. The attitudes of the much smaller group or groups of in-crowds who hand out awards or do critical reviews are mostly influenced by other members of their in-crowd, not by the tastes of the mass audience. Over time, just by happenstance if nothing else, their views start drifting apart from those of the mass audience.
This is by no means peculiar to F&SF. In just about every field of literary or artistic endeavorâ€”hell, just plain hobbies, when you get down to itâ€”you tend to get a division between the interests and concerns of the mass audience involved in that field and the much smaller inner circles of aficionados.
Forget high-faluting literature, for a moment. Consider…
Hundreds of millions of people own dogs. If you ask those people what constitutes a â€œgood dog,â€ you will get a range of answers but they will mostly focus on a dogâ€™s behavior toward the humans they deal with.
But now go to a dog show, attended by the comparatively tiny number of people who are hobbyists when it comes to breeding and raising dogs. Most of the criteria by which Dog X or Dog Y gets chosen as â€œbest dog of showâ€ are going to be criteria that the average dog-owner around the world thinks are esoteric at best and often downright silly or even grossly wrong-headed.
So it always is, unlessâ€”as with the Oscarsâ€”there is so much money at stake in winning an award that the Powers-That-Be in the industry will damn well see to it over time that the award never strays too far from what the worldâ€™s multi-billioned mass audience wants. But, of course, there isnâ€™t anything like that kind of money involved in most awards. Certainly not the Hugo and the Nebula.
I think of it as the movie reviewerâ€™s syndrome. I noticed many years ago that almost all movie reviewers will automatically deduct at least one point from their rating of a movie if it contains a car chase. Why? Well, itâ€™s not hard to understand. Seeing three or four or five movies a week the way they do, they get sick and tired of car chases.
But the average movie-goer doesnâ€™t watch new movies four times a week. For them, movies are a relatively occasional experienceâ€”and, what the hell, car chases are kinda fun.
What you get with literature, including any and all forms of genre fiction, is the following division:
What the mass audience wants, first and foremostâ€”and this has been true and invariant since the Sumerians and the epic of Gilgameshâ€”is a good story. Period.
â€œTell me a good story.â€ Thazzit.
But, sooner or later, that stops being sufficient for the in-crowds. At first, they want more than just a good story. Which, in and of itself, is fair enough. The problem is that as time goes by â€œmore than just a good storyâ€ often starts sliding into â€œI really donâ€™t care how good the story is, itâ€™s the other stuff that really matters.â€
Eventually, form gets increasingly elevated over content. â€œOriginalityâ€ for its own sake, something which the mass audience cares very little aboutâ€”and neither did Homer or Shakespeareâ€”becomes elevated to a preposterous status. And what withers away, at least to some degree, is a good sense of what skills are involved in forging a story in the first place.
To put it another way, every successful author has to master two skills which, although related, are still quite distinct: they have to be good story-tellers; and they have to be good writers.
Of those two skills, being a terrific story-teller but a journeyman writer will win you a mass audience, and is likely to keep it. On the flip side, being a journeyman story-teller but a terrific wordsmith will win you critical plaudits but wonâ€™t usually get you much in the way of an audience.
I should add something here, before I close. As a rule, critically-acclaimed authors are not oblivious to this reality at all. The award-voters and reviewers and critics may be oblivious to it, but the authors rarely are. I have now and then run across critically-acclaimed authors who were egotistical jerks, but not often. In my experience, most authors who get nominated a lot and win awards are quite down to earth and no less appreciative of the sort of skills that I have as I am of theirs. Many of them are friends of mine, some of them are good friends, and there are none of themâ€”well… thereâ€™s a jackass or two, but never mindâ€”for whom I wish anything but the best in their careers.
Having said that, though, I feel required to add something else. Iâ€™m not the one who needs to get awards to stay afloat, as a writer. Iâ€™m doing just fine, thank you. The people who are really getting hurt by the modern drift of the awards away from the mass audience are the authors who win them. Why? Because the farther and farther those major awards diverge from any connection to the mass audience and its opinions and attitudes, the more they become devalued as awards that mean anything that isnâ€™t purely self-referential.
Every professional author today who doesnâ€™t have his or her head stuck in the sand knows perfectly well that winning a Nebula or a World Fantasy Award isnâ€™t going to have the slightest positive effect on their career, so far as the publishers are concerned. The Hugo still counts for something, but…
Not much, any longer. And that little is getting eroded, as each year goes by. Within the foreseeable future, even winning a Hugo award will be shrugged off by publishers the same way that winning a Nebula or a WFC is already shrugged off.
(I should mention that there is one exception to what I said above: The awards do matter when it comes to foreign sales. Publishers in foreign languages usually donâ€™t know the U.S. market all that well, but they can easily look at a list of award winners.)
Is there any solution to the problem?
I doubt it, to be honest. Itâ€™s a tough nut to crack, because most of the problem is objective.
One way to tackle the problem, I suppose, would be to expand the awards still further. Go from four literary awards to…
Well, hereâ€™s where the problem comes in. I write in all lengths, and Iâ€™ve been professionally published in all lengths, from fifteen hundred word short stories on up. But, mostly, I work in long series. And I can tell you that under the existing category of â€œnovelâ€ there are at least four different types of stories each of which pose as many separate challenges and require as many varied sets of skills as the differences between writing a short story, a novelette and a novella.
1) Short novels. Stories from about 40,000 to 80,000 words.
2) Full length stand-alone novels.
3) Mega-novels. These are stories which are actually a single â€œnovelâ€ in the sense that they are based on an integrated story arch, but which are so long that for practical and commercial reasons they have to be published in multiple volumes. Probably the classic instance in our field is Tolkienâ€™s The Lord of the Rings. It is usually called a â€œtrilogy,â€ but it is in fact a single novel.
An example from my own work would be the six-volume Belisarius â€œseries,â€ which is really just one great big novel.
4) Series, properly speaking. These are stories which share a common setting and usually a common set of characters, but do not possess a single story arch.
Just to make things more complicated, there is really quite a big difference between two kinds of series: the traditional â€œbeads on a stringâ€ series, which proceed as Volumes 1, 2, 3, etc., and the more complex kind of series where the stories branch off from each other, often run parallel to each other, and canâ€™t be neatly assigned to any clear and definite chronological sequence.
Iâ€™ve worked in both kinds, and they really do require different skill sets, although of course thereâ€™s a lot of overlap. (My Trail of Glory series is a â€œbeads on a stringâ€ type series. My 1632 series and Joeâ€™s World series are of the more complex â€œbranching bushâ€ type.)
So what are we supposed to do? Scrap the existing best novel award for four or possibly even five different awards?
And if that seems excessive, contemplate this:
As long as weâ€™re considering solving award problems by expanding the number of awards, let us not overlook the still more long-standing problem that comedy is always lumped in with dramatic story-telling even though everybody who knows anything about stories know perfectly well that:
â€”comedy is really, really hard to do well;
â€”and it never gets any critical respect.
Thatâ€™s partly what explains the preposterous fact that Terry Pratchett got so few nominations in his entire career. And itâ€™s also the reason that the Golden Globe movie awards, unlike the Oscars, make a distinction between comedic films and dramatic films.
I can see it already…
Weâ€™d have seven different literary awards instead of four, and then duplicate each of them for comedic treatment for a total of fourteen awards handed out every year.
Somehow, that strikes me as more than a little goofy.
Granted, they hold the Golden Globe awards every year with even more categories of awards and people pay attention. On the other hand, theyâ€™ve got lots of photogenic actors and actresses on the red carpet–not to mention the beaches at Cannes–and we donâ€™t. The number of F&SF writers or convention-going fans who look good in a skimpy gown or swimsuit is… ahâ€¦
But I personally think the best solution, if there is one at all, is to scrap the whole existing set-up. Of all the awards handed out for literary merit, the only ones that seems to maintain any sort of ongoing more-or-less objective relationship to the real world are those given out for often broadly-defined achievement. Theyâ€™re not awards given out for â€œbest XYZ of year ABC.â€ Instead, they are achievement awards handed out for a body of work, that may be anchored to something specific but takes other considerations into account, and perhaps most importantly is not tied to an annual cycle.
That allows such awards to adapt to changes in the market (or the equivalent in other fields), not to be forced into making snap judgmentsâ€”and, perhaps most important of all, allows the voters to consider the ongoing and cumulative impact of an authorâ€™s work rather than artificially dividing it up between Works 1, 2, 3, etc., etc.
It is simply not the case that every authorâ€™s importance to the field can be gauged in terms of this or that specific story, matched up against all other stories in the year it came out. In the case of many authors, even though they may never have written any single work that anyone (including themselves) would consider â€œthe best whateverâ€ of Year ABC, they manage to produce a body of work over many years that, taken as a whole, often outshinesâ€”even dwarfsâ€”the overall body of work of authors who might have won annual awards fairly regularly.
Consider the example I gave earlier: Andre Norton. Who will be remembered in our field long after most award-winners are forgotten.
All that said, I think the likelihood that either the Hugo or the Nebula will be scrapped in favor of general achievement awards is probably indistinguishable from zero. These things tend to develop a tremendous institutional inertia. If such an award started with a very large and prestigious body of sponsors, it might have a chance of getting off the ground, I suppose. My problem is that, deep down inside, a little voice is whispering to me….
Oh, great. Just what the world needs. Another goddam award that nobody pays any attention to except the people who voted for it.